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विश्व बैंक के बाद, एशियन इन्फ्रास्ट्रक्चर इन्वेस्टमेंट बैंक ने अपना निवेश अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना से वापस लिया

प्रेस रिलीज | २३ जुलाई २०१९

विश्व बैंक के बाद, एशियन इन्फ्रास्ट्रक्चर इन्वेस्टमेंट बैंक ने अपना निवेश अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना से वापस लिया 

चीन के नेतृत्व वाले एशियन इन्फ्रास्ट्रक्चर इन्वेस्टमेंट बैंक (AIIB) ने आंध्र प्रदेश के अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना से हाथ खींच लिए है। विश्व बैंक द्वारा पिछले सप्ताह अमरावती परियोजना से अपना निवेश वापस लेने के बाद इसके प्रवक्ता लॉरेल ओस्टफील्ड द्वारा यह निर्णय एक समाचार एजेंसी को संप्रेषित किया गया।

एआईआईबी कुल $715 मिलियन की परियोजना में से $200 मिलियन के वित्तपोषण पर विचार कर रहा था, जबकि विश्व बैंक $ 300 मिलियन पर विचार कर रहा था।

चार साल पुराने एआईआईबी ने इससे पहले कभी भी किसी परियोजना से अपना निवेश वापस नहीं लिया है।

समाचार एजेंसी रॉयटर्स ने लॉरेल ओस्टफील्ड के द्वारा कहा, “एआईआईबी अब फंडिंग के लिए अमरावती सस्टेनेबल इन्फ्रास्ट्रक्चर एंड इंस्टीट्यूशनल डेवलपमेंट प्रोजेक्ट पर विचार नहीं कर रहा है।” एआईआईबी इस परियोजना को केवल एक सह-वित्तदाता के रूप में देख रहा था और इसमें विश्व बैंक की सुरक्षा नीतियों का पालन करना था। विश्वबैंक केपरियोजना से बाहर निकलने के फैसले के बाद, एआईआईबी के इस फैसले पर गहरी निगाह रखी जा रही थी।

इस परियोजना के कारण हुए भूमि अधिग्रहण और विस्थापन के गंभीर दबाव और भय के कारण हुए सामाजिक-आर्थिक नुकसान से हज़ारोंमजदूरों, किरायेदारों, भूमिहीन परिवारों, एवं दलितों समुदाय के लोगों को नुक़सान पहुँचा है। इन मुद्दों के साथ ही परियोजना की वित्तीय गैर-व्यवहार्यता और स्वैच्छिक भूमि-पूलिंग के नाम पर उपजाऊ भूमि के बड़े पैमाने पर हुए कब्जे को जनांदलोंऔर नागरिक समाज संगठनों ने सरकार, एआईआईबी व विश्व बैंक के समक्ष कई बार  उठाया गया।

वर्किंग ग्रुप ऑन इंटरनेशनल फाइनेंशियल इंस्टीट्यूशंस (WGonIFI) और अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी प्रोजेक्ट के प्रभावित समुदाय एआईआईबी केइस फैसले का स्वागत करते हैं और इसे उन लोगों की जीत के रूप में मानते हैंजो प्रशासन के भय और दबाव एवं वित्तीय संस्थानों की उपेक्षा के बावजूद अपने हक के लिए खड़े रहे।

“जैसा कि हमने नर्मदा बांध परियोजना के मामले में देखा है, किसी भी परियोजना मे विश्व बैंक का वित्तपोषण अन्य द्विपक्षीय और बहुपक्षिय एजेंसियों को भी साथ ले आता है जिनमे से प्रत्येक स्वतंत्र रूप से बिना उचित वैधानिक प्रक्रिया के काम करते है। वित्तीय संस्थानों और तंत्रों के बीच यह गठजोड़ मजबूत हो रहा है और जैसा कि हमने अमरावती परियोजना के मामले में देखा है, लोगो की एकजुटता एवं वैज्ञानिक तथ्य ही उन्हें झुका सकते हैं,” नर्मदा बचाओ आंदोलन एवं नेशनल एलियान्स आफ पीपलस मूवमेंट की वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता मेधा पाटकर ने कहा।

विश्व बैंक ने दूसरे दिन एक बयान जारी कर कहा था कि यह भारत सरकार ही थी जिसने उधार देने के अनुरोध को वापस ले लिया, जो की याद दिलाता है कि 1992 में सरदार सरोवर (नर्मदा) बांध के मामले में भी सरकार ने 27 साल पहले यही किया था। मोर्स कमेटी द्वारा सरदार सरोवर परियोजना पर एक गंभीर रिपोर्ट के बाद विश्व बैंक ने जोर देकर कहा था कि भारत सरकार को पुनर्वास एवं और पर्यावरण सुरक्षा उपायों की सख्त शर्तों को पूरा करना होगा। बैंक ने यह जांचने के लिए एक टीम को भारत भेजा ताकि शेष $170 मिलियन ऋण का भुगतान करने से पहले यह देख सके कि इन शर्तों को पूरा किया गया है या नहीं। समय सीमा से ठीक एक दिन पहले – 31 मार्च, 1992 – को बैंक ने घोषणा की कि भारत ने अपने दम सरदार सरोवर परियोजना का निर्माण कार्य पूरा करने का फैसला किया है।

अमरावती के मामले में, विश्व बैंक की स्वतंत्र जवाबदेही तंत्र के निरीक्षण पैनल को अमरावती परियोजना की जांच पर अपना निर्णय देने के एक हफ़्ते पहले भारत सरकार ने अपना अनुरोध वापस ले लिया था।

“विश्व बैंक के बाद अब एआईआईबी ने इस परियोजना से हाथ खींच लिया,यह लोगो की एक बड़ी कामयाबी है। भारत सरकार द्वारा बैंक से अनुरोध वापस लेने की तकनीकी केवल एक झांसा है। चंद्रबाबू नायडू की सरकार मे विश्व बैंकके निरीक्षण पैनल द्वारा एक संभावित जांच से कई उल्लंघन एवं किसानों पर हुए ज़ुल्म और अन्याय का खुलासा हुआ होगा,”आर्थिक और सामाजिक अध्ययन केंद्र, हैदराबाद के प्रोफेसर रामचंद्रैयाने कहा।

बड़ी संख्या में लोगों के आंदोलनों, विशेषज्ञों और नागरिक समाज संगठनों की एकजुटता और समर्थन के बिना यह जीत संभव नहीं थी। “दो बड़े वित्तीय दिग्गजों का इस पर्यावरण और सामाजिक रूप से विनाशकारी परियोजना से बाहर निकलना – लोगों, नागरिक, समाज, संगठनों एवं  कार्यकर्ताओं के लिए एक बड़ी जीत है जो पिछले चार वर्षों से विभिन्न मंचों पर इस परियोजना को लगातार चुनौती दे रहे हैं। इन वित्तीय संस्थानों को यह महसूस करने का समय आ गया है कि अगर ये संस्थान विनाशकारी परियोजनाओं को अलोकतांत्रिक और अन्यायपूर्ण तरीके से वित्त देने के पालन जारी रखेंगे तो लोग उनके खिलाफ सामूहिक आवाज उठाएंगे, और जीतेंगे,” अनुराधा मुंशी, सेंटर फॉर फाइनेंसियल अकाउंटेबिलिटी।

WGonIFIs राज्य सरकार से मांग करता है कि,

  1. केंद्रीय भूमि अधिग्रहण और पुनर्वास कानून, 2013के विसंगत CRDA भूमि अधिग्रहण अधिनियम, CRDA प्राधिकरण और संबंधित अधिसूचना को खारिज किया जाए और अमरावती राजधानी क्षेत्रके सभी प्रभावितों के मामले में केंद्रीय कानून को पूर्ण रूप से लागू किया जाए। इसके साथ सरकार द्वारा बिना सहमति ली गई सभी जमीन को वापस लोगों को दिया जाए।
  2. किसानों, तटीय समुदायों, खेतिहर मजदूरों, बटायेदारों, भूमिहीन परिवारों, जिनको जमीन अधिग्रहण और विस्थापन के दौरान अत्यंत पीड़ा और भय-व्याप्त समय से गुजरना पड़ा, उनको हुए सामाजिक-आर्थिक नुकसान, जमीन के मामले और मानसिक प्रताड़ना की न्यायिक जांच की जाए।
  3. पिछले पांच वर्षों में सामाजिक जीवन को पहुंचे नुकसान को देखते हुए दलित और दूसरे निर्दिष्ट भू-मालिकों के लिए विशेष मुआवजे की घोषणा की जाए।
  4. राजधानी क्षेत्र की घोषणा के बाद सक्रिय हुए दलालों, जो दलितों और निर्दिष्ट भू-मालिकों की जमीन खरीदने की प्रक्रिया में शामिल थे, के ऊपर सख्त कार्यवाही की जाए।
  5. दलित किसानों को दस्तावेजों में धांधली कर उन्हें बेदखल करने की कोशिशों को रोका जाए और सभी दलित किसानों को, जिनका जमीन पर वास्तविक कब्ज़ा है, उन्हें 2013 के कानून अनुसार मुआवजा, पुनर्स्थापन और पुनर्वास के लिए वास्तविक भू-मालिक माना जाए।

परियोजना के बारे में:
जून, 2014 में पूर्व के आंध्र प्रदेश राज्य के बँटवारे के बाद, दोनों राज्य, तेलंगाना और आंध्र प्रदेश ने हैदराबाद को राजधानी के रूप में अगले 10 वर्षों तक रखने का फैसला किया। उसी वर्ष सितम्बर में चंद्रबाबू नायडू, आंध्र प्रदेश के पूर्व मुख्यमंत्री, ने अमरावती को नए राजधानी शहर के रूप में बनाने की घोषणा की। विश्व बैंक और AIIB, इस परियोजना के लिए $715 मिलियन वित्त प्रदान करने पर विचार कर रही थी।

इसके प्रभाव आंकलन में भी इसके सामाजिक और पर्यावरणीय प्रभावों को देखते हुए विश्व बैंक ने इस परियोजना को A केटेगरी प्रदान की थी । कृष्णा नदी घाटी के ऊपर बनाए जाने के लिए, उपजाऊ खेती की भूमि और जंगलों के विनाश, 20000 से अधिक परिवारों को विस्थापित करने, जबरन भूमि अधिग्रहण, और शहर निर्माण में मनचाहे ठेकेदारों को ठेका देने के कारण यह परियोजना बेहद विवादित रही है। 2017 में विश्व बैंक के जवाबदेही तंत्र के ‘इंस्पेक्शन पैनल’ में प्रभावितों ने शिकायत की और विश्व बैंक के नियमों के उल्लंघनों की जांच के लिए कहा। यह शिकायत अभी प्रक्रिया में थी और बैंक की बोर्ड, इंस्पेक्शन पैनल द्वारा इसकी जांच करने के लिए प्रस्ताव का इंतज़ार कर रही थी।

अधिक जानकारी के लिए इस लिंक पर जायें: Encroachment of Nature, People and Livelihoods: A Case of the Abusive, Greedy and Failing Amaravati Capital City (2014-2019)

परियोजना के बारे में जानकारी यहाँ भी उपलब्ध है। 

संपर्क विवरण:

  1. जी रोहित
    मानवाधिकार मंच, आंध्र प्रदेश
    gutta.rohithbunny@gmail.com
    +91 99852 50777
  2. मीरा संघमित्रा
    नेशनल एलाएंसे ऑफ पीपलस मूवमेंट
    +91 73374 78993
    reachmeeranow@gmail.com
  3. टैनी एलेक्स
    शोधकर्ता, सेंटर फॉर फाइनेंसियल अकाउंटेबिलिटी
    +91 96500 15701
    tani@cenfa.org

After World Bank, AIIB Pulls Out of Amaravati Capital City Project

Press Release | July 23, 2019

After the World Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Pulls Out of Amaravati Capital City Project

New Delhi: The China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) pulled out of Amaravati Capital City Project in Andhra Pradesh. This decision, communicated by its spokesperson Laurel Ostfield to a news agency, follows the decision of the World Bank – a co-financier of the project – last week to pull out from the project.

AIIB was considering financing $200 mn out of the total $715 mn project while World Bank was considering $300 mn.

Never before did the four-year-old AIIB have to drop a project which they were considering for financing.

The news agency Reuters quoted Laurel Ostfield, “AIIB is no longer considering the Amaravati Sustainable Infrastructure and Institutional Development Project for funding.” AIIB was considering this project only as a co-financier and was to adhere to the World Bank’s safeguard policies in this project. After the Bank’s decision to exit from the project, AIIB’s decision on this was being keenly watched.

The monumental violations resulting out of the socio-economic damages, land transactions affecting thousands of agricultural, coastal, and pastoral labourers, tenants, landless families, dalits who have undergone severe pressure and fear due to the land acquisition and displacement process, financial non-viability, massive land-grabbing of the fertile land in the name of voluntary land-pooling were raised time and again with the government and both AIIB and World Bank by affected communities, people’s movements and civil society organisations.

Working Group on International Financial Institutions (WGonIFIs) and the affected communities of the Amaravati Capital City Project welcome the decision and consider this as a victory of the people who despite intimidation and coercion from the administration, and indifference from financial institutions, stood their ground.

“World Bank funding to any project brings in other bi-lateral and muti-lateral financing agencies without each one of them independently doing due-diligence, as we have seen in the case of the Narmada dam project. This nexus between financial institutions and mechanisms are strengthening, and only people united and scientific facts can make them bow down, as we have seen in the case of Amaravati project,” Medha Patkar, senior activist of Narmada Bachao Andolan and National Alliance of People’s Movements said.

World Bank had issued a statement the other day saying that it was the Government of India which withdrew the request for lending, reminding one of what the government did in the case of Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) dam in 1992, 27 years back. After a scathing report on SSP by Morse Committee, the Bank insisted that the Indian government must meet tough conditions – mostly on R&R and environmental safeguards. The Bank planned to send a team to India to check that the government had fulfilled these conditions before paying the remaining $170 million of the loan. On the day before the deadline – March 31, 1992 – the Bank announced that India had ‘decided to complete construction work on its own’.

In this case, a week before the independent accountability mechanism of World Bank, the Inspection Panel is to deliver its decision on the investigation into the Amaravati project, Government of India withdrew its request.

“AIIB pulling out of the project after World Bank is a great victory for the people. The technicality of Govt of India withdrawing the request from the Bank is only hogwash. A probable investigation by the Inspection Panel would have revealed several violations and methods of coercion and unjust use/deployment of force on the farmers by Chandrababu Naidu’s government,” said Prof. Ramachandraiah, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad.

This victory would not have been possible without the solidarity and support of a large number of people’s movements, experts and civil society organisations. “This exit of two big financial giants from this environmentally and socially disastrous project is a victory of people, civil society organisations, activists who have been relentlessly challenging this project at various fora for the past four years. It is time for these financial institutions to realise that people will raise a collective voice against them, and will win if these institutions continue to follow undemocratic and unjust ways to finance disastrous projects,” said Anuradha Munshi, Centre for Financial Accountability.

WGonIFIs reiterates its demand to the State government that it should:

  1. Scrap the CRDA Land Pooling Act, CRDA authorities and notifications passed subsequently, which are inconsistent with the 2013 Central Act and fully implement the Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Act, 2013 in the case of all the affected people of Amaravati Capital Region. Also, the government should return the plots that were taken involuntarily from the people.
  2. Initiate a Judicial enquiry into the socio-economic damage, land transactions and psychological trauma of agricultural, coastal, and pastoral labourers, tenants, landless families, Dalits who have undergone severe pressure and fear, due to the land acquisition and displacement process.
  3. Announce a Special Compensation Package for Dalits and other assigned landholders as their social life has been damaged to a great extent in the past five years.
  4. Prosecute brokers, real estate agents and other persons who purchased or facilitated the purchase of assigned lands after the announcement of Capital Region.
  5. Stop attempts to de-list dalit farmers from records through dubious documentary manipulation and consider all dalit cultivators in possession of the land as the original owners of the land for purposes of compensation and R&R under the 2013 Act.

About the Project: 

After bifurcation of the erstwhile Indian state of Andhra Pradesh in June 2014, both the new states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh decided to share Hyderabad as capital for ten years. In September 2014, N Chandrababu Naidu, the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh announced Amaravati as the proposed capital city, to be developed over many years. The World Bank and AIIB were under consideration to finance the USD 715 million project.

Even in its risk assessment, World Bank had assigned this Project category A, signifying the social and environmental impacts. The project was criticised for building the city on the floodplains of river Krishna, diverting fertile farmlands and forests, displacing around 20,000 families, forcefully acquiring lands, and favouring contractors for the construction of the city. A complaint with the Inspection panel (Independent accountability mechanism) of the World Bank has been filed by the affected community in 2017 to investigate the project for violation of the World Bank’s safeguard policies. This complaint was under process, and the Board of the Bank was waiting for the recommendation on the eligibility of investigation from the Inspection Panel.

For more info: Encroachment of Nature, People and Livelihoods: A Case of the Abusive, Greedy and Failing Amaravati Capital City (2014-2019)

More information about the project also available here.

Contact details:

  1. G. Rohith
    Human Rights Forum, Andhra Pradesh
    gutta.rohithbunny@gmail.com
    +91 99852 50777
  2. Meera Sanghamitra
    National Convenor, National Alliance of People’s Movements
    +91 73374 78993
    reachmeeranow@gmail.com
  3. Tani Alex
    Researcher, Centre for Financial Accountability
    +91 96500 15701
    tani@cenfa.org

विश्व बैंक ने अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना से हाथ खींचा, लोगों को मिली बड़ी सफ़लता

विश्व बैंक ने अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना से हाथ खींचा,

लोगों को मिली बड़ी सफ़लता

प्रेस विज्ञप्ति | 20 जुलाई, 2019

एक बड़े ऐतिहासिक कदम, जिसका प्रभाव कई स्तर पर देखने को मिलेगा, उठाते हुए कल विश्व बैंक ने आंध्र प्रदेश के अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना में $300 मिलियन का क़र्ज़ देने से इनकार कर दिया। 

इस फैसले का वर्किंग ग्रुप ऑन इंटरनेशनल फाइनेंसियल इंस्टिट्यूशन (WGonIFIs) और परियोजना से प्रभावित समुदायों ने जोरदार सराहना की। पिछले कुछ वर्षों से कई जन आंदोलनों और नागरिक संगठनों से आपत्ति प्राप्त करने और बैंक के जवाबदेही तंत्र ‘इंस्पेक्शन पैनल’ को प्रभावित समुदायों द्वारा मिले शिकायतों के बाद बैंक ने यह फैसला लिया है। 

इस फैसले पर मेधा पाटकर, नर्मदा बचाओ आंदोलन और जन आंदोलनों का राष्ट्रीय समन्वय (NAPM) की वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता, ने कहा कि हमें खुशी है कि विश्व बैंक ने अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना में शामिल व्यापक उल्लंघनों का संज्ञान लिया। यह परियोजना लोगों की आजीविका और वातावरण के लिए एक बड़ा खतरा रही  है। नर्मदा और टाटा मुंद्रा के बाद, यह विश्व बैंक समूह के खिलाफ लोगों की तीसरी बड़ी जीत है। हमें खुशी है कि नर्मदा बचाओ आंदोलन के संघर्ष के कारण बनाए गए ‘इंस्पेक्शन पैनल’ ने यहां अपनी महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई। आज जब हम लोगों के संघर्ष और उनकी जीत का जश्न मना रहे हैं, वो लोग जो राज्य की धमकियों और आतंक के खिलाफ खड़े रहते है, तब हम सरकार और वित्तीय संस्थानों को भी चेतावनी देते हुए बताना चाहते हैं कि बिना लोगों की सहमति के अपने एजेंडे को आगे ना बढ़ाये।

2014 में जब अमरावती कैपिटल सिटी परियोजना की संकल्पना की गई, तभी से पर्यावरण विशेषज्ञों, नागरिक संगठनों और जन आंदोलनों ने परियोजना में सामाजिक और पर्यावरणीय कानूनों के गंभीर उल्लंघन, वित्तीय अस्थिरता, स्वैच्छिक भूमि-पूलिंग के नाम पर उपजाऊ भूमि के बड़े पैमाने पर जबरन कब्ज़ा होने का विरोध दर्ज किया | इन विरोधों और लोगों की आवाज़ दबाने के लिए शिकायतकर्ताओं को पूर्व मुख्यमंत्री द्वारा खुली धमकी दी जाती रही थी।

कैपिटल रीजन फार्मर्स फेडरेशन के मल्लेला शेषगिरी राव ने कहा, “हमारी जमीन और आजीविका के ऊपर अनिश्चितता के बादल मंडराने लगे थे। इस डर और चिंता ने हमारी आँखों से नींद छीन ली थी। इस संघर्ष ने हमारे जीवन में ऐसी जगह बना ली है जिसे हम कभी भूल नहीं सकते हैं। हमें यह पूरी उम्मीद है कि विश्व बैंक के इस परियोजना से बाहर निकलने से राज्य और अन्य देनदारों को एक बड़ा संदेश जाएगा और वो ईमानदारी और प्रतिबद्धता के साथ लोगों की चिंताओं का संज्ञान लेंगे।“

परियोजना से जुड़े एक अन्य सह-वित्तदाता एशियन इंफ्रास्ट्रक्चर इन्वेस्टमेंट बैंक (एआईआईबी) ने खुद को प्रसिद्द पेरिस एग्रीमेंट के बाद के समय में उभरते बैंक के रूप में पेश करते हुए जाहिर किया है कि वह जलवायु परिवर्तन और इसके संकटों से निपटने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध है। लेकिन अभी भी यह परियोजना उनके आधिकारिक दस्तावेजों में विचाराधीन परियोजना के रूप में मौजूद है और दस्तावेज के मुताबिक़ एआईआईबी को इस परियोजना में केवल एक सह-वित्तदाता के रूप में दर्ज किया गया है। जिसका इस्तेमाल कर के एआईआईबी ने इस परियोजना में विश्व बैंक की नीतियों का उपयोग किया है, लेकिन अब विश्व बैंक के इस परियोजना से बाहर आने के बाद एआईआईबी की सह-वित्तदाता के रूप में स्थिति अस्पष्ट है।

“एक अच्छे बदलाव के लिए, सकारात्मक सोच ने बैंक को इस विनाशकारी कार्यक्रम से हटने के निर्णय लेने पर विवश किया। यह हमारे रुख को भी स्पष्ट करता है, कि पेरिस एग्रीमेंट के बाद उभरने वाले बैंक की बयानबाज़ी के बावजूद, एशियन इन्फ्रास्ट्रक्चर इन्वेस्टमेंट बैंक (AIIB), जो इस परियोजना में एक सह-वित्तपोषक है, अब और विश्व बैंक के पीछे छिप नहीं सकता है, जो अब तक वह एक सह- वित्तदाता के रूप में बताकर कर रहा था।”, एनजीओ फोरम ऑन एडीबी के अंतर्राष्ट्रीय समिति और एन्विरोनिक्स ट्रस्ट के डायरेक्टर, श्रीधर आर ने कहा।

सेंटर फ़ॉर फ़ाइनेंशियल अकाउंटिबिलिटी कि  टैनी एलेक्स  ने कहा, “यह जन शक्ति का एक और उदाहरण है जो विश्व बैंक जैसी संस्थानों को भी लोगों के आपत्तियों की जवाबदेह बनने पर मजबूर करता है। जब परियोजना से प्रभावित लोग अपनी आवाज़ पर बुलंद और मजबूती से खड़े थे, उसी समय कई अन्य संगठनों ने समर्थन में उनके मुद्दे और आवाजों को उचित जगहों तक पहुंचाया। यह न्याय एवं जवाबदेही ले लिए लड़ रहे लोगों और उनके मजबूत मांगों की जीत है।”

WGonIFIs राज्य सरकार से मांग करता है कि,

  1. केंद्रीय भूमि अधिग्रहण और पुनर्वास कानून, 2013 के विपरीत भाव वाली CRDA भूमि अधिग्रहण अधिनियम, CRDA प्राधिकरण और संबंधित अधिसूचना को खारिज किया जाए और अमरावती कैपिटल रीजन के सभी प्रभावितों के मामले में केंद्रीय कानून को पूर्ण रूप से लागू किया जाए। इसके साथ सरकार द्वारा बिना सहमति लिए गए सभी जमीन को वापस लोगों को दिया जाए।
  2. किसानों, तटीय समुदायों, खेतिहर मजदूरों, बटायेदारों, भूमिहीन परिवारों, जिनको जमीन अधिग्रहण और विस्थापन के दौरान अत्यंत पीड़ा और भय व्याप्त समय से गुजरना पड़ा, उनके   सामाजिक-आर्थिक नुकसान, जमीन के मामले और मानसिक प्रताड़ना की न्यायिक जांच की जाए।
  3. पिछले पांच वर्षों में सामाजिक जीवन को पहुंचे नुकसान को देखते हुए दलित और दूसरे निर्दिष्ट भू-मालिकों के लिए विशेष मुआवजे की घोषणा की जाए।
  4. कैपिटल रीजन की घोषणा के बाद सक्रिय हुए दलालों, जो दलितों और निर्दिष्ट भू-मालिकों की जमीन खरीदने और उसकी प्रक्रिया में शामिल थे, के ऊपर सख्त कार्यवाही की जाए।
  5. दलित किसानों को दस्तावेजों में धांधली कर उन्हें बेदखल करने की कोशिशों को रोका जाए और सभी दलित किसानों को, जिनका जमीन पर वास्तविक कब्ज़ा है, उन्हें 2013 के कानून अनुसार मुआवजा, पुनर्स्थापन और पुनर्वास के लिए वास्तविक भू-मालिक माना जाए।

 

 

परियोजना के बारे में:

जून, 2014 में पूर्व के आंध्र प्रदेश राज्य के बँटवारे के बाद, दोनों राज्य, तेलंगाना और आंध्र प्रदेश ने हैदराबाद को राजधानी के रूप में अगले 10 वर्षों तक रखने का फैसला किया। उसी वर्ष सितम्बर में चंद्रबाबू नायडू, आंध्र प्रदेश के पूर्व मुख्यमंत्री, ने अमरावती को नए राजधानी शहर के रूप में बनाने की घोषणा की। विश्व बैंक और AIIB, इस परियोजना के लिए $715 मिलियन वित्त प्रदान करने पर विचार कर रही थी।इसके प्रभाव आंकलन में भी इसके सामाजिक और पर्यावरणीय प्रभावों को देखते हुए विश्व बैंक ने इस परियोजना को A केटेगरी प्रदान की थी । कृष्णा नदी घाटी के ऊपर बनाए जाने के लिए, उपजाऊ खेती की भूमि और जंगलों के विनाश, 20000 से अधिक परिवारों को विस्थापित करने, जबरन भूमि अधिग्रहण, और शहर निर्माण में मनचाहे ठेकेदारों को ठेका देने के कारण यह परियोजना बेहद विवादित रही है। 2017 में विश्व बैंक के जवाबदेही तंत्र के ‘इंस्पेक्शन पैनल’ में प्रभावितों ने शिकायत की और विश्व बैंक के नियमों के उल्लंघनों की जांच के लिए कहा। यह शिकायत अभी प्रक्रिया में थी और बैंक की बोर्ड, इंस्पेक्शन पैनल द्वारा इसकी जांच करने के लिए प्रस्ताव का इंतज़ार कर रही थी।

अधिक जानकारी के लिए इस लिंक पर जायें:  Encroachment of Nature, People and Livelihoods: A Case of the Abusive, Greedy and Failing Amaravati Capital City (2014-2019)

संपर्क:

  1. गुट्टा रोहित
    Human Rights Forum, Andhra Pradesh
    gutta.rohithbunny@gmail.com
    +91 99852 50777
  2. मीरा संघमित्रा
    National Convenor, National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM)
    +91 73374 78993
    meeracomposes@gmail.com
  3. टैनी अलेक्स
    Researcher, Centre for Financial Accountability
    +91 96500 15701
    tani@cenfa.org

World Bank Pulls Out of Amaravati Capital City Project: A Major Victory to People, Activists Say

For Immediate Release

World Bank Pulls Out of Amaravati Capital City Project: A Major Victory to People, Activists Say

July 18, 2019: In a significant move, which will have repercussions at multiple levels, yesterday the World Bank has decided to pull out of the $300 million lending to the Amaravati Capital City project in Andhra Pradesh.

Working Group on International Financial Institutions (WGonIFIs) and the affected communities of the Amaravati Capital City Project welcome the decision. The Bank arrived at this decision after a series of representations it received from many people’s movements and civil society organisations over the past years, and a complaint to its accountability mechanism, Inspection Panel, by the affected communities.

We are happy that World Bank took cognisance of the gross violations involved in the Amaravati Capital City project, threatening the livelihood of people and fragile environment. After Narmada and Tata Mundra, this is the third major victory against the World Bank Group. We are happy that the Inspection Panel which was created due to the struggle of Narmada Bachao Andolan played its critical role here. While we celebrate this victory of people, who stood up to the intimidation and terror of the state, we warn the government and financial institutions not to push their agenda without the consent of the people” said Medha Patkar, senior activist of Narmada Bachao Andolan and National Alliance of People’s Movements.

Ever since the Amaravati Capital City Project was conceptualised in 2014, environmental experts, civil society organisations and grassroots movements have expressed their anguish over the grave  violations of the social and environmental laws, financial unviability, massive land-grabbing of the fertile land in the garb of voluntary land-pooling, open threats to the complainants by none other than the then Chief Minister, along with  concerns of losing fertile farmlands and livelihoods.

Mallela Sheshagiri Rao from the Capital Region Farmers Federation said, “With uncertainty hovering above us in respect to our land and livelihood, we had suffered sleepless nights with fear and pain. The struggle has made a mark in our lives that we can never forget. We hope the larger message of World Bank’s pulling out of this project will be heard by the state and other financiers and will address the concerns of people with honesty and commitment.”

Another co-financier of the project Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), projected themselves as the Post-Paris Bank, signalling the commitment to tackle climate emergency, is in focus now. While the project is still listed under consideration in their official documents, having entered in this project only as a co-financier and AIIB used World Bank’s policies to adhere to in this project, as a co-financier, the status of the AIIB now is unclear, with World Bank pulling out.

“For a change, good sense has prevailed upon the Bank to withdraw from the disastrous programme.  This also vindicates our stance that despite its rhetoric of a Post-Paris Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), which is a co-financer in the project, can no longer hide behind the World Bank which it has been doing as a co-financier,” said Sreedhar R, Chair, International Committee, NGO Forum on ADB and Director, Environics Trust.

Tani Alex of Centre for Financial Accountability said, “This is another instance of people’s power forcing institutions like World Bank responsive to their concerns. While the people affected by the project stood a firm ground, support and solidarity from a number of other organisations amplified their concerns at appropriate forums. This is a victory of people and their unnerving demands for accountability and justice.”

WGonIFIs demand the State government should:

  1. Scrap the CRDA Land Pooling Act, CRDA authorities and notifications passed subsequently, which are inconsistent with the 2013 Central Act and fully implement the Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation Act, 2013 in the case of all the affected people of Amaravati Capital Region. Also, the government should return the plots that were taken involuntarily from the people.
  2. Initiate a Judicial enquiry into the socio-economic damage, land transactions and psychological trauma of agricultural, coastal, and pastoral labourers, tenants, landless families, Dalits who have undergone severe pressure and fear, due to the land acquisition and displacement process.
  3. Announce a Special Compensation Package for Dalits and other assigned landholders as their social life has been damaged to a great extent in the past five years.
  4. Prosecute brokers, real estate agents and other persons who purchased or facilitated the purchase of assigned lands after the announcement of Capital Region.
  5. Stop attempts to de-list dalit farmers from records through dubious documentary manipulation and consider all dalit cultivators in possession of the land as the original owners of the land for purposes of compensation and R&R under the 2013 Act.

About the Project:

After bifurcation of the erstwhile Indian state of Andhra Pradesh in June 2014, both the new states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh decided to share Hyderabad as capital for 10 years. In September 2014, N Chandrababu Naidu, the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh announced Amaravati as the proposed capital city, to be developed over many years. The World Bank and AIIB were under consideration to finance the USD 715 million project.

Even in its risk assessment, World Bank had assigned this Project category A, signifying the social and environmental impacts. The project was criticised for building the city on the floodplains of river Krishna, diverting fertile farmlands and forests, displacing around 20,000 families, forcefully acquiring lands, and favouring contractors for the construction of the city. A complaint with the Inspection panel (Independent accountability mechanism) of the World Bank has been filed by the affected community in 2017 to investigate the project for violation of the World Bank’s safeguard policies. This complaint was under process and the Board of the Bank was waiting for the recommendation on the eligibility of investigation from the Inspection Panel.

For more information:  Encroachment of Nature, People and Livelihoods: A Case of the Abusive, Greedy and Failing Amaravati Capital City (2014-2019)

Contact details:

  1. Gutta Rohit
    Human Rights Forum, Andhra Pradesh
    gutta.rohithbunny@gmail.com
    +91 99852 50777
  2. Meera Sanghamitra
    National Convenor, National Alliance of People’s Movements
    +91 73374 78993
    reachmeeranow@gmail.com
  3. Tani Alex
    Researcher, Centre for Financial Accountability
    +91 96500 15701
    tani@cenfa.org

 

Encroachment of Nature, People and Livelihoods: A Case of Amaravati Capital City (2014-2019)

This brief report aims to throw light on the critical lapses and breaches which have been committed during the design, pre-appraisal and Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment – Environment and Social Management Framework (SESA-ESMF) procedures for Project PI59808: India- Proposed Amaravati Sustainable Capital City Development Project, by both World Bank [for 300 mn USD] and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Project PD000019-PSI-IND [for 200 mn USD]. The report also shares the recent updates from the communities of the project area ear-marked for building the capital city.

This project has now been renamed in 2019 as Amaravati Sustainable Infrastructure and Institutional Development Project (ASIIDP), in both the World Bank and AIIB project pages.

Villagers Celebrate The Historic US Supreme Court’s Verdict Which Ended The Immunity of the IFIs

For Immediate Release

Villagers Celebrate The Historic US Supreme Court’s Verdict Which Ended The Immunity of the IFIs

March 31, 2019, Mundra: The air in Mundra filled with the slogans like Kaun Banata Hai Hindustan, Machuawara, Majdoor, Kisan! (Who makes India? Fishermen, Labourer and Farmers); Ladenge Jeetenge! (We shall fight, we shall win); Aadiwaasi Machhuawara Kisaan Ekta Zindabad! (Long live the unity of tribals, fishermen and farmers), and Poonjipatiyon Ki Dalaai Band karo! Hundreds of people from Navinal and Tagri villages of Kutch and representatives from various social movements and civil society members have gathered to celebrate the historic verdict of the US Supreme Court that ended the absolute immunity enjoyed for long by the International Financial Institutions.
“Is Development only for Tata, Ambani, and Adani? What about the fishermen from Mundra, who live in the open with huts made up of bamboo and gunny bags but feed thousands of people in and outside Gujarat,” asked Medha Patkar, senior activist, Narmada Bachao Andolan and National Alliance for the Peoples’ Movements. “Every citizen has the constitutional right to question anti-people policies,” she asserted. She further said, “We do not have any problem in discharging Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Dam waters for the benefit of the farmers of Kutch. However, we will fight if it is given to the industries,” referring to the allocation of water for a large number of industries.
She was speaking at the public meeting, organised by the Machimar Adhikar Sangharsh Sangathan (MAAS), Mundra, which witnessed the participation of the hundreds of the villagers affected by the World Bank Group’s International Finance Corporation-funded Tata Mundra Ultra Mega Power Plant. The meeting was organised to celebrate the historic verdict of the US Supreme Court that ended the absolute immunity enjoyed for long by the International Financial Institutions.
During the occasion, representatives from various social movements and civil society members like  Medha Patkar, senior activist of the Narmada Bachao Andolan; Soumya Dutta, Convenor of the Beyond Copenhagen Collective; Nitaben Mahadev, Gujarat Lok Samiti, Sanjeev Danda, Dalit Adivasi Shakti Adhikaar Manch; and Maju Varghese and Anuradha Munshi from the Working Group on International Financial Institutions (WGonIFIs) were also present to extend their solidarity and felicitate the fishermen and villagers who have been at the forefront of this historic struggle.
The petitioners of the case were garlanded and facilitated at the public meeting. Speakers after speakers alluded their courage, encountering hostilities and the broader impact of this victory to the people around the globe, making institutions like World Bank more accountable.
Speaking at the occasion, Soumya Dutta, emphasised that the recent US Supreme Court’s decision to end immunity of the International Financial Institutions is a significant victory of the people fighting to save their dignity, land and livelihood across the world. He stressed that a broader alliance of different sections of the people affected by the project be formed to fight getting justice.
Sanjeev Danda said the US Supreme Court’s verdict is a firm reminder that fishers and poor are not insects that can’t be eliminated easily. He thanked the villagers for their firm resistance against the might of the IFC and Tata.
Nitaben Mahadev expressed solidarity on behalf of organisations in Gujarat and wished the people the best to take the fight to higher heights.
Buddha Ismail Jam, the main petitioner of the case against the ongoing IFC, emphasised the need to stay together. He said, “If we continue to stay strong for the remaining struggle, nobody can snatch justice away from us.”
Gajendra Sinh Jadeja, a co-petitioner of the case and Sarpanch of the Navinal Panchayat in Mundra, listed the problems currently being faced by the fishermen, farmers and pastoralists. He said, “The production of cotton, dates, chikoo has considerably reduced due to the coal-ash, which has also adversely impacted the health of the people. Similarly, the inlet and outlet channel have increased the salinity, thus impacting agriculture. Additionally, the channel has also driven away from the fishes away from the coast, due to which, the fishermen have to travel about 25 kilometres into the sea.”
Bharat Patel, thanked the villagers, civil society and social movements across the country for their solidarity, and the Earth Rights International, for their unflinching support. He asserted that the policies of the IFIs need to be amended and said that they can’t function at the cost of the lives of people. Talking about the further course of action, he said, “We will fight till the ecology is restored; the people who lost their livelihoods are adequately compensated; and the officials of IFC and Tata Power, who conspired to destroy our lives for their greed are criminally charged.”
Background
On February 27, 2019, the Supreme Court of United States, in a historic 7-1 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court decided in Jam v. IFC that international organisations like the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank Group do not enjoy absolute immunity.
The Court’s decision marks a defining moment for the IFC – the arm of the World Bank Group that lends to the private sector. For years, the IFC has operated as if it were “above the law,” at times pursuing reckless lending projects that inflicted serious human rights abuses on local communities, and then leaving the communities to fend for themselves.
In the case of the Tata Mundra, since the beginning, the IFC recognised that the Tata Mundra coal-fired power plant is a high-risk project that could have significant adverse impacts on local communities and their environment. Despite knowing the risks, the IFC provided a critical Rs 1,800 crore (USD 450 million) loan in 2008, thus enabling the project’s construction. Despite this, the IFC failed to take reasonable steps to prevent the harms it predicted and failed to ensure that the project abided by the environmental and social safeguards.
As predicted, the plant caused significant harm to the communities living in its shadow. Construction of the plant destroyed vital sources of water used for drinking and irrigation. Coal ash has contaminated crops and fish laid out to dry, air pollutants are at levels dangerous to human health, and there has already been a rise in respiratory problems. The enormous quantity of thermal pollution – hot water released from the plant – has destroyed the local marine environment and the fish populations that fishermen rely on to support their families. Although a 2015 law required all plants to install cooling towers to minimise thermal pollution by the end of 2017, the Tata plant has failed to do so.
A nine-mile-long coal conveyor belt, which transports coal from the port to the Plant, runs next to local villages and near fishing grounds. Coal dust from the conveyor and fly ash from the plant frequently contaminate drying fish, reducing their value, damage agricultural production, and cover homes and property.
The IFC’s own internal compliance mechanism, the Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO), issued a scathing report in 2013 confirming that the IFC had failed to ensure the Tata Mundra project complied with the environmental and social conditions of the IFC’s loan at virtually every stage of the project. The report recommended the IFC to take remedial action. However, the IFC’s management responded to the CAO by rejecting most of its findings and ignoring others. In a follow-up report in early 2017, the CAO observed that the IFC remained out of compliance and had failed to take any meaningful steps to remedy the situation.
The harms suffered by the people are all the more regrettable because the project made no economic sense from the beginning. In 2017, in fact, Tata Power began trying to unload a majority of its shares in the project for one rupee because of the losses it has suffered and will suffer in future. At the moment, the plant is operating much-below capacity in part because India has an oversupply of electricity.
Please visit here for more background and accessing documents related to the case.
About us:
Machimar Adhikar Sangharsh Sangathan (MAAS) is a trade union of the fish workers in Mundra and a co-petitioner in the historic Budha Jam vs IFC case.
 
Contact:
Dr Bharat Patel (Mundra, Gujarat, India)
General Secretary, Machimar Adhikar Sangharsh Sangathan
+ 91 94264 69803
bharatp1977@gmail.com

Solidarity Statement from India At People’s Dialogue, Cape Town on 31 March 2019

Solidarity Statement from India

At People’s Dialogue, Cape Town on 31 March 2019

In response to BRICS-led New Development Bank’s 4th Annual General Meeting in South Africa

The BRICS led NDB (New Development Bank) is being promoted as an institution that serves as developing economies’ healthy and essential alternative to undemocratic International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and International Finance Corporation that are controlled by western powers. We reject such rhetoric and assert that the $100 billion NDB is designed and structured to function equally undemocratically. NDB invests in projects that do not conform with necessary environmental and social safeguards. Consequently, billions of dollars invested by NDB in critical sectors such as energy, road building and urbanization is causing extensive environmental and social impacts. We know, as a result, South Africa, a huge recipient of NDB loans, has become a site for corporate land grabs which is resulting in massive loss of livelihoods and displacement of rural and urban communities, along with rampant corruption. The prime examples of these as we understand are Eskom, Transnet and the Development Bank of Southern Africa who are among the most notorious of South Africa’s corrupt, climate-change-causing and non-consultative firms.

IFIs have systematically disrupted evolution of democratic governance forcing Governments to implement regressive policies, legislation and schemes, commodify and financialise land, essential services and food production systems, which attack environment, food security and labour. They are gaining significant access to sovereign decision-making processes. They operated with legal immunity until recently when the US Supreme Court issued a judgement in the suit filed by Indian fishing communities against IFC that IFC is not above law. This immunity had always encouraged them to finance projects without a proper appraisal of their environmental and social impacts, and due diligence of their financial and economic consequences. IFIs typically invest in massive projects in critical sectors. A slew of such highly destructive and economically disastrous mega projects in India include Industrial corridors – Bharatmala (roads and highways expansion project), Sagarmala (creating sea-routes linked to tens of new ports), bullet train, and smart cities. The massive scales of such projects have little to do with need and necessity. Very often, a network of transnational corporations are the beneficiaries of the massive contracts that ensue. We understand it’s a way of making money out of money. The result of such development is systemic human rights violations, social disruption, and environmental destruction. And, these mega projects typically end up in massive financial losses and lead to devastating economic instability in regional and national economies. Communities in farms, coastal areas and cities are uprooted in the process, accentuating impoverishment and unemployment at massive scales. People end up burdened with crippling debts merely to survive.

Further, outsourcing the formulation of critical policies of a country relating to labour, food security, defence, water, land, farming, etc., to a variety of think-tanks and foreign consultancies work to maximise corporate control over peoples’ lives and natural resources. Institutions of democracy and decision-making of a country, such as the Parliament, are kept in the dark and global financial powers are making deep forays into sovereign decision making. Moreover, the aggressive privatisation of essential services such as electricity, water, health, food supply, public transport and education, is causing a rapid escalation of the living cost of the majority population.

Communities on the frontlines of resistance to mega undemocratic and destructive projects are facing extreme forms of violence and terror and becoming victims of systemic abuse of executive power of the State. Instead of responding to popular and people’s genuine demands, when farmers, Adivasis, Dalits and workers organise to demand just action by the State, they have often been met with state repression. The present social upheaval in India and a range of arrests of dissenters, writers, cultural and social activists across India based on fabricated cases are indicative of increasing repression.

Social movements and peoples organisations representing Adivasis, Dalits, indigenous peoples, women, farmers, fisherfolk, forest workers, hawkers, artisans, unorganised workers and civil society from across India, together with solidarity groups from India resolve that undemocratic International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have no role in a democratic polity, and therefore need to be shut down. These institutions, including NDB, trample on peoples’ rights, disregard national sovereignty, tear into the very fabric of constitutionally guaranteed governance and thus undermine India’s economic and political security.

We pledge in solidarity with the peoples’ movements, communities and civil society groups of South Africa, at this occasion of People’s Dialogue at Cape Town, to resolve to tirelessly work against subordination of governments to corporate power, against exploitation of human and natural resources, against discrimination, against social, economic and environmental injustices, against corruption, loot and violence.

We will continue resisting the prevailing financial hegemony of undemocratic and unaccountable financial institutions such as the BRICS-led NDB. We resolve to push for people-centred alternatives in all sectors of the economy and to advance an inclusive model of development in which finance and infrastructure support the vulnerable and the poor communities.

We continue remaining dedicated to building a society based on democratic and secular principles that ensure freedom, equality, equity, dignity, fraternity, love and respect for all

We continue remaining dedicated to building a society based on democratic and secular principles that ensure freedom, equality, equity, dignity, fraternity, love and respect for all, deeply respecting Mother Earth’s rights.

Signed by,

  1. Medha Patkar, Social Activist, Narmada Bachao Andolan and National Alliance of People’s Movements
  2. Ashok Choudhary, All India Union of Forest Working People
  3. Saktiman Ghosh, National Hawkers Federation
  4. Ulka Mahajan, Social Activist, Sarvahara Jan Andolan
  5. Xavier Dias, Former Editor, Khan Kaneej Aur ADHIKAR (Mines minerals & RIGHTS)
  6. Peter, National Fishworkers Forum
  7. Working Group on IFIs, India
  8. FAN-India – Financial Accountability Network India
  9. Rajendra Ravi, Director, Institute for Democracy and Sustainability
  10. Sreedhar Ramamurthy., Environics Trust
  11. PT George, Intercultural Resources, Delhi
  12. Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Nadi Ghati Morcha and Peoples Alliance in Central East India
  13. Vimal Bhai, Convenor, Matu Jan Sangathan and National Convenor, National Alliance of People’s Movements
  14. Soumya Dutta, Bharat Jan Vigyan Jatha
  15. Vijayan MJ, Pakistan India People’s Forum for Peace and Democracy
  16. Leo Saldanha, Environment Support Group
  17. Anil Tharayath Varghese, Delhi Forum
  18. Usman Mangi, Machimar Adhikar Sangarsh Samiti
  19. Kalyani Menon-Sen, Independent Researcher and Feminist Activist
  20. Madhuresh Kumar, National Alliance of People’s Movements
  21. Bilal Khan, Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao Andolan
  22. Sanjeev Kumar, Dalit-Adivasi Shakti Adhikar Manch – DASAM
  23. Tani Alex, Centre for Financial Accountability
  24. Ajay Kumar Jha, Pairvi- Public Advocacy Initiatives for Rights and Values in India
  25. Priya Pillai, Social Environmental Activist
  26. Vidya Dinker, Social Activist, Karavali Karnataka Janabhivriddhi Vedike
  27. Ovais Sultan Khan, Human Rights Activist
  28. Rajkumar Sinha, Chutka Parmanu Virodhi Sagarsh Samiti
  29. Willy D’Costa, INSAF – Indian Social Action Forum
  30. Linda Chhakchhuak, Grassroots Options – Independent Journalist
  31. Krishnakant, Activist, Pariyavaran Suraksha Samiti Gujarat
  32. C. Ramachandraiah, Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad
  33. Meera Sangamitra, National Alliance of People’s Movements
  34. Vijay Kumar, Social and Political Activist, CPI-ML Red Star Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
  35. Himanshu Damle, Public Finance Public Accountability Collective
  36. Chennaiah Poguri, General Secretary of AP VV Union India and National Agricultural Workers Forum
  37. Maglin P., Activist, Theeradesha Mahila Vedi Kerala
  38. Bharat Patel, Machimar Adhikar Sangarsh Sangathan Gujarat
  39. Awadesh Kumar, Srijan Lokhit Samiti Madhya Pradesh
  40. Ram Wangkheirakpam, Indigenous Perspectives, Manipur
  41. Rajesh Serupally, Freelance Researcher and Journalist